Research Nuggets: AI/ML for Mental Health

Example explanations generated by the proposed architecture

Explainable architecture for Alzheimer's Disease Detection from Language

Ning Wang, Mingxuan Chen, K. P. Subbalakshmi, ``Explainable CNN-attention Networks (C-Attention Network) for Automated Detection of Alzheimer's Disease", BioKDD, 2020.

In this work, we propose three explainable deep learning architectures to automatically detect patients with Alzheimer's disease based on their language abilities. The architectures use: (1) only the part-of-speech features; (2) only language embedding features and (3) both of these feature classes via a unified architecture, respectively. We use self-attention mechanisms and interpretable 1-dimensional ConvolutionalNeural Network (CNN) to generate two types of explanations of the model's action: intra-class explanation and inter-class explanation. The inter-class explanation captures the relative importance of each of the different features in that class, while the inter-class explanation captures the relative importance between the classes. Note that although we have considered two classes of features in this paper, the architecture is easily expandable to more classes because of its modularity. Extensive experimentation and comparison with several recent models show that our method outperforms these methods with an accuracy of 92.2% and F1 score of 0.952on the DementiaBank dataset while being able to generate explanations. We show by examples, how to generate these explanations using attention values.

Personalized Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease Detection: A Case Study of President Reagan's Speeches

Ning Wang, Fan Luo, Vishal Peddagangireddy, K.P. Subbalakshmi and R. Chandramouli, Personalized Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease Detection: A Case Study of President Reagan's Speeches, BioNLP 2020

Alzheimers disease (AD)-related global healthcare cost is estimated to be $1 trillion by 2050. Currently, there is no cure for this disease; however, clinical studies show that early diagnosis and intervention helps to extend the quality of life and inform technologies for personalized mental healthcare. Clinical research indicates that the onset and progression of Alzheimers disease lead to dementia and other mental health issues. As a result, the language capabilities of patient start to decline. In this paper, we show that machine learning-based unsupervised clustering of and anomaly detection with linguistic biomarkers are promising approaches for intuitive visualization and personalized early stage detection of Alzheimers disease. We demonstrate this approach on 10 years (1980 to 1989) of President Ronald Reagans speech data set. Key linguistic biomarkers that indicate early-stage AD are identified. Experimental results show that Reagan had early onset of Alzheimers sometime between 1983 and 1987. This finding is corroborated by prior work that analyzed his interviews using a statistical technique. The proposed technique also identifies the exact speeches that reflect linguistic biomarkers for early stage AD.

Anomalous years in President Reagan's speech

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